HttpClient工具类

最近在工作中需要在后台调用短信接口,经过研究决定使用HttpClient,自己封装了一个HttpClient工具类,简单轻松的实现get,post,put和delete请求,希望分享给大家。

1. 什么是HttpClient

HTTP 协议可能是现在 Internet 上使用得最多、最重要的协议了,越来越多的 Java 应用程序需要直接通过 HTTP 协议来访问网络资源。虽然在 JDK 的 java net包中已经提供了访问 HTTP 协议的基本功能,但是对于大部分应用程序来说,JDK 库本身提供的功能还不够丰富和灵活。HttpClient 是Apache HttpComponents 下的子项目,用来提供高效的、最新的、功能丰富的支持 HTTP 协议的客户端编程工具包,并且它支持 HTTP 协议最新的版本和建议。

2. 功能介绍

  • 实现了所有 HTTP 的方法(GET,POST,PUT,DELETE 等)
  • 支持自动转向
  • 支持 HTTPS 协议
  • 支持代理服务器等

3. 版本比较

注意本篇博客主要是基于 HttpClient4.5.5 版本的来讲解的,也是现在最新的版本,之所以要提供版本说明的是因为 HttpClient 3 版本和 HttpClient 4 版本差别还是很多大的,基本HttpClient里面的接口都变了,你把 HttpClient 3 版本的代码拿到 HttpClient 4 上面都运行不起来,会报错的。所以一定要注意 HtppClient 的版本问题。

4. HttpClient不能做的事情

HttpClient 不是浏览器,它是一个客户端 HTTP 协议传输类库。HttpClient 被用来发送和接受 HTTP 消息。HttpClient 不会处理 HTTP 消息的内容,不会进行 javascript 解析,不会关心 content type,如果没有明确设置,HttpClient 也不会对请求进行格式化、重定向 url,或者其他任何和 HTTP 消息传输相关的功能。

5. HttpClient使用流程

使用HttpClient发送请求、接收响应很简单,一般需要如下几步即可。

  1. 创建HttpClient对象。
  2. 创建请求方法的实例,并指定请求URL。如果需要发送GET请求,创建HttpGet对象;如果需要发送POST请求,创建HttpPost对象。
  3. 如果需要发送请求参数,可调用HttpGetsetParams方法来添加请求参数;对于HttpPost对象而言,可调用setEntity(HttpEntity entity)方法来设置请求参数。
  4. 调用HttpClient对象的execute(HttpUriRequest request)发送请求,该方法返回一个HttpResponse对象。
  5. 调用HttpResponse的getAllHeaders()、getHeaders(String name)等方法可获取服务器的响应头;调用HttpResponse的getEntity()方法可获取HttpEntity对象,该对象包装了服务器的响应内容。程序可通过该对象获取服务器的响应内容。
  6. 释放连接。无论执行方法是否成功,都必须释放连接

6. HttpClient工具类

本项目采用spring-boot构建,话不多说,上代码

优秀

6.1 添加依赖

<properties>
        <httpclient.version>4.5.5</httpclient.version>

        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- springboot的web和test启动库 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- apache httpclient组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
            <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <finalName>${project.artifactId}</finalName>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
            <!-- 跳过单元测试 -->
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <skipTests>true</skipTests>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

6.2 编写spring-boot启动类

/**
 * Description: springboot启动类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
	}

}

6.3 编写get和post请求测试controller

/**
 * Description: get和post请求测试controller
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/hello")
public class HelloWorldController {

	@GetMapping("/get")
	public String get() throws InterruptedException {
		return "get无参请求成功";
	}

	@GetMapping("/getWithParam")
	public String getWithParam(@RequestParam String message) {
		return "get带参请求成功,参数message: " + message;
	}

	@PostMapping("/post")
	public String post(@RequestHeader("User-Agent") String userAgent,
            @RequestHeader("Accept") String accept,
            @RequestHeader("Accept-Language") String acceptLanguage,
            @RequestHeader("Accept-Encoding") String acceptEncoding,
            @RequestHeader("Cookie") String cookie,
            @RequestHeader("Connection") String conn) {
		// 打印请求头信息
		System.out.println("Cookie = " + cookie);
		System.out.println("Connection = " + conn);
		System.out.println("Accept = " + accept);
		System.out.println("Accept-Language = " + acceptLanguage);
		System.out.println("Accept-Encoding = " + acceptEncoding);
		System.out.println("User-Agent = " + userAgent);
		
		return "post无参请求成功";
	}

	@PostMapping("/postWithParam")
	public String postWithParam(@RequestParam String code, @RequestParam String message) {
		return "post带参请求成功,参数code: " + code + ",参数message: " + message;
	}

}

6.4 创建httpClient响应结果对象

/**
 * Description: 封装httpClient响应结果
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientResult implements Serializable {

	/**
	 * 响应状态码
	 */
	private int code;

	/**
	 * 响应数据
	 */
	private String content;

}

6.5 重点,编写httpclient工具类

/**
 * Description: httpClient工具类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtils {

	// 编码格式。发送编码格式统一用UTF-8
	private static final String ENCODING = "UTF-8";
	
	// 设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
	private static final int CONNECT_TIMEOUT = 6000;
	
	// 请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。
	private static final int SOCKET_TIMEOUT = 6000;

	/**
	 * 发送get请求;不带请求头和请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url) throws Exception {
		return doGet(url, null, null);
	}
	
	/**
	 * 发送get请求;带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 请求参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		return doGet(url, null, params);
	}

	/**
	 * 发送get请求;带请求头和请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param headers 请求头集合
	 * @param params 请求参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<String, String> headers, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		// 创建httpClient对象
		CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

		// 创建访问的地址
		URIBuilder uriBuilder = new URIBuilder(url);
		if (params != null) {
			Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
			for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
				uriBuilder.setParameter(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
			}
		}

		// 创建http对象
		HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(uriBuilder.build());
		/**
		 * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
		 * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
		 * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
		 * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
		 */
		RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
		httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);
		
		// 设置请求头
		packageHeader(headers, httpGet);

		// 创建httpResponse对象
		CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

		try {
			// 执行请求并获得响应结果
			return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpGet);
		} finally {
			// 释放资源
			release(httpResponse, httpClient);
		}
	}

	/**
	 * 发送post请求;不带请求头和请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url) throws Exception {
		return doPost(url, null, null);
	}
	
	/**
	 * 发送post请求;带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		return doPost(url, null, params);
	}

	/**
	 * 发送post请求;带请求头和请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param headers 请求头集合
	 * @param params 请求参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<String, String> headers, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		// 创建httpClient对象
		CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

		// 创建http对象
		HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
		/**
		 * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
		 * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
		 * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
		 * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
		 */
		RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
		httpPost.setConfig(requestConfig);
		// 设置请求头
		/*httpPost.setHeader("Cookie", "");
		httpPost.setHeader("Connection", "keep-alive");
		httpPost.setHeader("Accept", "application/json");
		httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
		httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Encoding", "gzip, deflate, br");
		httpPost.setHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");*/
		packageHeader(headers, httpPost);
		
		// 封装请求参数
		packageParam(params, httpPost);

		// 创建httpResponse对象
		CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

		try {
			// 执行请求并获得响应结果
			return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPost);
		} finally {
			// 释放资源
			release(httpResponse, httpClient);
		}
	}

	/**
	 * 发送put请求;不带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url) throws Exception {
		return doPut(url);
	}

	/**
	 * 发送put请求;带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
		HttpPut httpPut = new HttpPut(url);
		RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
		httpPut.setConfig(requestConfig);
		
		packageParam(params, httpPut);

		CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

		try {
			return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPut);
		} finally {
			release(httpResponse, httpClient);
		}
	}

	/**
	 * 发送delete请求;不带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url) throws Exception {
		CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
		HttpDelete httpDelete = new HttpDelete(url);
		RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
		httpDelete.setConfig(requestConfig);

		CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;
		try {
			return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpDelete);
		} finally {
			release(httpResponse, httpClient);
		}
	}

	/**
	 * 发送delete请求;带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param url 请求地址
	 * @param params 参数集合
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url, Map<String, String> params) throws Exception {
		if (params == null) {
			params = new HashMap<String, String>();
		}

		params.put("_method", "delete");
		return doPost(url, params);
	}
	
	/**
	 * Description: 封装请求头
	 * @param params
	 * @param httpMethod
	 */
	public static void packageHeader(Map<String, String> params, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) {
		// 封装请求头
		if (params != null) {
			Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
			for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
				// 设置到请求头到HttpRequestBase对象中
				httpMethod.setHeader(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
			}
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 封装请求参数
	 * 
	 * @param params
	 * @param httpMethod
	 * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException
	 */
	public static void packageParam(Map<String, String> params, HttpEntityEnclosingRequestBase httpMethod)
			throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
		// 封装请求参数
		if (params != null) {
			List<NameValuePair> nvps = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
			Set<Entry<String, String>> entrySet = params.entrySet();
			for (Entry<String, String> entry : entrySet) {
				nvps.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));
			}

			// 设置到请求的http对象中
			httpMethod.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(nvps, ENCODING));
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 获得响应结果
	 * 
	 * @param httpResponse
	 * @param httpClient
	 * @param httpMethod
	 * @return
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	public static HttpClientResult getHttpClientResult(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse,
			CloseableHttpClient httpClient, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) throws Exception {
		// 执行请求
		httpResponse = httpClient.execute(httpMethod);

		// 获取返回结果
		if (httpResponse != null && httpResponse.getStatusLine() != null) {
			String content = "";
			if (httpResponse.getEntity() != null) {
				content = EntityUtils.toString(httpResponse.getEntity(), ENCODING);
			}
			return new HttpClientResult(httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode(), content);
		}
		return new HttpClientResult(HttpStatus.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 释放资源
	 * 
	 * @param httpResponse
	 * @param httpClient
	 * @throws IOException
	 */
	public static void release(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse, CloseableHttpClient httpClient) throws IOException {
		// 释放资源
		if (httpResponse != null) {
			httpResponse.close();
		}
		if (httpClient != null) {
			httpClient.close();
		}
	}

}

6.6 启动spring-boot,测试get、post请求

/**
 * Description: HttpClientUtils工具类测试
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtilsTest {

	/**
	 * Description: 测试get无参请求
	 * 
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	@Test
	public void testGet() throws Exception {
		HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/get");
		System.out.println(result);
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 测试get带参请求
	 * 
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	@Test
	public void testGetWithParam() throws Exception {
		Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();
		params.put("message", "helloworld");
		HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/getWithParam", params);
		System.out.println(result);
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 测试post带请求头不带请求参数
	 * 
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	@Test
	public void testPost() throws Exception {
		Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();
		headers.put("Cookie", "123");
		headers.put("Connection", "keep-alive");
		headers.put("Accept", "application/json");
		headers.put("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
		headers.put("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");
		HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/post", headers, null);
		System.out.println(result);
	}

	/**
	 * Description: 测试post带参请求
	 * 
	 * @throws Exception
	 */
	@Test
	public void testPostWithParam() throws Exception {
		Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();
		params.put("code", "0");
		params.put("message", "helloworld");
		HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/postWithParam", params);
		System.out.println(result);
	}

}

完整代码下载链接

©️2020 CSDN 皮肤主题: 大白 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页